martes, 19 de mayo de 2009



Elasticidad ingreso de la demanda:

La elasticidad ingreso de la demanda (Ey) es el cambio porcentual de la cantidad demandada dividido entre el cambio porcentual del ingreso.

Ey = % de variación de la cantidad demandada / % de variación del ingreso

Las elasticidades ingreso de la demanda pueden ser positivas o negativas. Existen tres intervalos posibles:

· Ey > 1 (elástica al ingreso). Al aumentar el ingreso, la cantidad demandada también lo hace, pero la cantidad demandada aumenta con mayor rapidez que el ingreso. Los bienes que caen en esta categoría incluyen los cruceros marítimos, la ropa a la medida, los viajes internacionales, las joyas y las obras de arte.

· 0 > Ey > 1 (inelástica al ingreso). La cantidad demandada aumenta conforme lo hace el ingreso, pero el ingreso aumenta con mayor rapidez que la cantidad demandada. Ejemplos de estos bienes son los alimentos, ropa, mobiliario, periódicos y revistas.

· Ey MENOR QUE 0 (NEGATIVA). Conforme el ingreso aumenta, la cantidad demandada también lo hace, hasta que alcanza un máximo. Después de ese punto, si el ingreso continúa aumentando, la cantidad demandada disminuye. Los consumidores de bajos ingresos compran la mayor parte de estos bienes. A niveles bajos de ingresos, la demanda de esos bienes aumenta conforme lo hace el ingreso. Finalmente, el ingreso alcanza un nivel en el cual los consumidores reemplazan esos bienes con alternativas superiores.

Los bienes cuyas elasticidades ingreso de la demanda son positivas son los bienes normales. Los bienes cuyas elasticidades ingreso de la demanda son negativas se llaman bienes inferiores.

El valor de la elasticidad ingreso tiene que ver también con el nivel general de ingreso de la población. Un mismo bien puede ir cambiando el valor de su elasticidad a medida que una comunidad va adquiriendo un mejor nivel de vida. Por ejemplo, supongamos que estamos analizando la elasticidad ingreso de la demanda de equipos de audio convencionales. Si el ingreso de la población es muy bajo, no habrá demanda para este tipo de mercadería y podemos hablar de una elasticidad igual a cero. A medida que se eleva el nivel de ingresos, cada vez más personas pueden acceder a este bien y la elasticidad ingreso de la demanda será cada vez mayor superando el valor unitario. Pero puede ocurrir que, superado un determinado nivel de ingresos, el público prefiera equipos más sofisticados, que incluyan reproductor láser para compac disc, y la elasticidad ingreso de la demanda de equipos tradicionales vuelve a valores inferiores a la unidad. Si seguimos con esta escala de aumento de ingresos puede ocurrir que la elasticidad ingreso de la demanda se vuelva negativa, cuando la capacidad adquisitiva de la población hace que este tipo de equipo se considere obsoleto frente a modelos computarizados, a control remoto, etc., como sucede actualmente en Estados Unidos o Japón.


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